Network Analysis

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Avoiding common pitfalls when going beyond S-parameters.

In a previous life (before NMDG was acquired by National Instruments to become the Network Analysis Center of Excellence), we received a complaint about increasing "noise" on S-parameters when increasing the port power, which is weird because increasing port power should improve the S/N. Around the same time we also got another complaint about inconsistency between |S21| measured in VNA mode and |b2/a1| measured in large-signal (LSNA) mode. The attached power point slides were presented at the NVNA Users' Forum in 2005 and used as part of a lecture at the Free University of Brussels. The slides explain that nonlinearities can show up as "deterministic noise" and demonstrate that one should not forget the basic definition of S-parameters.

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