Did you try creating simple (CD)4017 application circuit such as running lights? This helps isolate the problem. Connect an LED in series with a resistor to each of (CD)4017's decoded output terminals. Keep the resistance a little higher to prevent (CD)4017 from sourcing large amount of current. Do not use a 555 as a clock, instead use Digital Clock or Clock Voltage source.
If the error persist try varying the operating voltage from 5 to 9 V.
If the error persist try replacing (CD)4017 with (CD)4022. Again, try varying the operating voltage from 5 to 9 V
Until you find the cause of the error you can start putting the 555 (do not place a capacitor in its output) and reconfigure the circuit into a simulated dice.