I have a P70530 drive which is capable of delivering 5 A. I have a stepper motor with an RMS current of 5.9 A. Will I risk damaging the motor if I underamp it? Or will it just limit the output torque available?
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You will not hurt the motor if you supply it with only 5 A. As you mentioned, you will just limit the output torque of the device. One thing to be mindful of would be potential slip in the motor. Thanks!
The amp rating of a motor is a maximum rating, i.e. current should never exceed the maximum rating. But of course it can be lower. Driving a 5.9 amp rated motor with 5.0 amps should pose no problems and also no significant decrease of torque.
When driving a motor with its maximum rated current the motor will get quite hot - but a surface which feels "hot" usually has not more than 40 deg C.
Usually it is not possible to damage anything when connecting a low current driver to a high current motor. If the rated current of the driver is much lower than the rated current of the motor the only risk is that the motor is not running properly.