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It's not always just Windows Firewall. Is this a company computer? I've had similar situations and it all came down to IS being weird with their security. I'd go talk with them.
That tells me there was a driver you did not install on the other computer. LabVIEW 2013 tries to automatically figure out what drivers you need when you configure an installer. This issue does not sound like it had anything to do with the TCP/IP.