You will need the Intelligent Brick in order to program the robot. The Intelligent Block is essentially the brain of the robot and can be programmed to control the color sensor. Code can be written in LabVIEW (and a few other programming languages) and downloaded to the block. The block also supports USB, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi communication.
Looking at the specifications of the EV3 Color Sensor, it doesn't seem to support any other direct type of communication.