I find interesting we can ping the roboRIO, and see it from the imaging too, with just the DS not detecting it correctly. You mention the firewalls and windows defender are off. I believe running the DS as admin can be a good troubleshooting step, too. I have some questions that might help to find where the error is coming from:
Does the DS show the same behavior when connected through Ethernet (instead of USB)?
How about accessing the Web Interface, can you open the roboRIO's settings with Internet Explorer?
Do you recall seeing any warning or errors during the installation of the FRC Update Suite?
You can also try a force reinstall of the software, or perhaps uninstalling and reinstalling the FRC Update Suite (to make sure the problem is not related to an issue with the program in the non-working computer, since the other computers do work).
Can you post an image of how the Diagnostics tab of the driver station looks like when you connect the robot and it is correctly pinged by the non-working computer?