There are quite a few differences between Linux and windows version. It is missing:
1. Max - useful when setting up connections between hardware
2, Many of the add on modules (these are not included that I can testify)
The main advantage I see for the Linux version, it is not crippled by my company IT policy. The windows 7 version will not let us install any programs on the machines regardless if they are production or development machines
I have been using LV on the Mac almost exclusively since version 1.2.
<soapbox mode = ON>
It has been a major source of frustration, that so many features available to the Windows versions are not available on the Mac. Some, like Vision, started (as iMAQ ) on the Mac, but are now Windows-only. Things like .NET are understandable, just as the Windows version probably does not support Apple Events. But support for all DAQ devices, Vision, the State Chart program and many others are missing with no good explanation from NI.
Just trying to figure out what is supported on which platforms is a major headache. NI's website does not make that obvious, particularly at the Buy page, where is should be extremely clear as to what you get for ~$5k or not. Given the substantial discrepancy between the features on the various platforms, the price should also reflect that.
Field representatives and phone support people often do not know these things as well.
Nancy Pelosi is quoted as having said that the health care bill had to be passed so we could see what was in it. Apparently some of the marketing people at NI are the same way. But the Mac/Linux versions at full price so you can find out what is not in them.